Friday, February 7, 2020
Human Resource Management College - Case Study Example Management of performance starts with recruitment and selection of the right person for the right job goes through the training and development of the employee and finally appraising him. Just because employees have the ability to do the job does not ensure that they will perform satisfactorily. A critical dimension of their effectiveness is their willingness to exert high energy levels - their motivation. In the case of Fifers Bakery, the plant is not automated, and therefore the situation demands for skilled workers, whereas, the majority of workers are unskilled. There are around 400 workers in the organization. The Appraisal process begins with the establishment of performance standards in accordance with the organization's strategic goals. These performance standards should also be clear and objective enough to be understood and measured. Performance is a vital component of the motivation model (Bradt, 1991; Guinn & Corona, 1991). Specifically, we must be concerned with the link between effort and performance, and between performance and rewards. Once performance standards are established, it is necessary to communicate these expectations; it should not be part of employees' job to guess what is expected of them. Too many jobs have vague performance standards and the problem is compounded when these standards are set in isolation and do not involve the employee (Tyler, 1997). To achieve the performance standards, the employees should be well trained in the skills expected out of them. In the case of Fifers, this aspect is lacking as many workers are unskilled. The third step in the apprai sal process is the measurement of performance. To determine what actual performance is, it is necessary to acquire information about it. We should be concerned with how we measure and what we measure. Four common sources of information are frequently used by managers regarding how to measure actual performance: personal observation, statistical reports, oral reports and written reports. The fourth step in the process is the comparison of actual performance with standards. The point of this step is to note deviations between standard performance and actual performance. This is followed by the fifth step, the discussion of the appraisal with the employee (Stack, 1997; Grote, 1997). The final step in the appraisal is the identification of corrective action wherever necessary. The challenges faced by Fifers can be linked to some commonly observed deficiencies. The Supervisor who is evaluating has two roles namely, judge and helper. Sometimes, there may be conflict between the two roles. Expectations of the supervisor and the subordinates regarding the job may be at variance. Very few supervisors have the skill to constructively convey to an employee how to improve his performance. Poor communication keeps employees in the dark about what is expected from them. These challenges could be overcome by taking some improvement measures. The employee job descriptions and performance standards should be periodically reviewed by the supervisors. The employees should be clearly communicated about what is expected out of them. This could help the supervisor and subordinate to overcome any variance in expectations. The employees sho
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Critical Appraisal Report Essay 1. INTRODUTION This report will cover logistics and RD section from the simulation, where I will be stating theories of logistics, and logistic transportation concepts, and analyzing my understanding for research and development. I will be stating out my decision for logistics and RD section in the simulation as well, and point out the reasons why I have made the decisions. 2. CONSIDERATION OF RELEVANT THEORIES CONCEPT 2.1 Logistics: According to Grund Vartdal, logistics is Ã¢â¬Å"the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, cost effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods, services and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer RequirementsÃ¢â¬â¢ Council of Logistics ManagementÃ¢â¬ (Grund Vartdal, 2000). It is a part of value chain activity, planed, implemented and controlled in order to meet customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs for goods, services and related information, it is a combination of transport, storage, handling, packaging, distribution processing, distribution, information processing and other basic functions. Logistic Management has four major characters, firstly, to achieve customer satisfaction as the first target, secondly, optimize the enterprise as a whole as the purpose, thirdly, information-centric, fourthly, value efficiency and effectiveness. 2.2 Logistics and Transportation: There are several classifications for logistics and transportation. Road transport: Mainly use gas trucks and other vehicles, road transport is responsible for close and small quantities of cargo, also where water transport and rail transport difficult to play their advantages. Road transport has several advantages such as strong flexibility, road construction period is short, low investment, easy to fit in local conditions and less demanding for facilities stations. It is also able to take the door-to-door transport form, without having to transfer or repeat loading and unloading. Rail transport: Mainly responsible for long-distance, large amounts of cargo, where it has no water transport conditions in the region, almost all bulk goods are rely on the railway transport. It has several advantages such as fast speed, not limited by natural conditions, large carrying capacity and low transport cost, though it is inflexible and can only be achieved in the fixed line transport, need other means of transportsÃ¢â¬â¢ cooperation and convergence. Water transport: Mainly bearing torque, long-distance transport in river and costal sea. There are costal transport generally use in small vessels, offshore transport depending on medium-sized and small-sized vessels, ocean transport in use of large volume of large vessels, and inland waterway transport. Water transport is able to transport forhigh-volume, long-distance and low-cost, though it has obvious drawbacks such as influenced by port, water level, season and climate. Air transport: Mainly in use of aircrafts for high value, and has the affordability of a strong freight goods such as expensive equipments, spare parts, high-end products, etc., also, some urgent need materials due to its high cost. Its main advantages are fastest speed, do not have terrain restrictions, where rail or cars cannot reach, it can rely on air transport, hence it is significance. Pipeline transport: Mainly in use for gas, liquid and powered solids. 2.3 Research and Development According to OECD factbook, RD refers to Ã¢â¬Å"creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new application.Ã¢â¬ (OECD factbook, 2008). It reflects the technological strength and core competitiveness. A countryÃ¢â¬â¢s RD level reflects its political and economical strengths, an enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢s RD level reflects its competitiveness. Research and development is the process of innovation into mold. Product innovation and technological innovation are the core of innovation, a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s research and development generally refers to product development and technology research and development. RD and technology development are closely related. Emerging technologies can always bring new products, RD tend to correspond to the product or focus on product innovation, and new product ideas need new technologi es to achieve, they have very close relationship. 3. INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY DISCUSSION AND REFLECTION This round for in-house development is 21,360K USD for Tech 1, and 21,362 for Tech 2, where money needed for new features are 71,240K USD for Tech 1, and 71,243K USD for Tech 2. As there are several plants in Asia and Europe, there will be one addition feature for Tech 1, and three addition features for Tech 2. The priorities from USA are Asia coming after Europe coming after USA, the priorities from Asia is USA coming after Europe coming after China as the civil war in Olistan has brought up the oil price, thus the logistic transportation would cost more, whereas the transportation cost is 29 USD/unit from USA to Asia and from Asia to USA, 13 USD/unit from USA/Europe, and 9 USD/unit from Asia to Europe. The in-house and contract manufacturing in USA are 5,082K USD for Tech 1 and 3,863K USD for Tech 2, while the in-house and contract manufacturing in Asia are 550K USD for Tech 1 and 1,245K USD for Tech 2, where they both allocated full capacity. For USA market, there are 1,392K units manufactured in USA for Tech 1 and 1,026K units for Tech 2. For Asian market, there are 1980K units manucatured in USA for Tech 1 and 615K units for Tech 2, 550K units manufactured in Asia for Tech 1 and 1,245K untis for Tech 2. For Europe market, there are 1,709K units manufactured in USA for Tech 1 and 2,222K units for Tech 2. Moreover, the average logistics per sold product is 16.9 USD in Asia, and 13.1 USD in Europe. According to the logistics theory, it suggests that if the products run out of supply, we will need to transfer the products to those regions where have higher profit. In this case for Round 3, oil price goes up, so we have decided to have Europe as the interlink station prior than Asia. 4. CONCLUSION To sum up, our group has gained 17.44% market share for this round, in order to achieve more market share, and gaining more shareholder return, we will need to focus more on the strategies selected in order to plan and implement more effectively. There are a lot we will need to improve in future rounds. 5. REFERENCE Cesim simulation Market Conditions [online] Available from http://gc4.cesim.com/dss/gc/MarketConditionsPage [7th Aug 2011] What is Logistics, available from CULC Managing International Trade Unit 7 Knowledgecast page 5. Research Development [online] Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research_and_development [8th Aug 2011]
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The article I chose to analyze is titled Get Fit With the Grizzlies: A Community-School-Home Initiative to Fight Childhood Obesity, which focused on social and physical health related determinants in their strategy to confront childhood obesity and promote change. The research done by C. Irwin, R. Irwin, Miller, Somes, and Richey (2010) in regards to the development of a community health promotion program has similarities to various aspects of the nutrition groupÃ¢â¬â¢s video and components of their health promotional program structure. As previously noted, social and physical determinants to health aided in the process of development and helped determine societal needs, as depicted by this groupÃ¢â¬â¢s population of interest. The population that the nutrition group used, involved 9-10 year old boys, who were already in a pre-established group who shared common interest i.e. cub scouts, were learning about nutrition in other areas of their life, parents actively participated and were present, presentation provided to them in a familiar environment i.e. cub scout meeting, and were motivated to participate in this program by earning a pin. Similarly, as found in Irwin, et al. (2010), participants in their program included relatively the same age group, specifically 9-11 year old children from Memphis City Schools in TN, where 11 elementary schools were randomly selected out of 110 to participate in this program and parents involvement at home was required at times. The dissemination of information in the video appeared to be very age appropriate and used similar supplemental tools such as the US Department of AgricultureÃ¢â¬â¢s MyPyramid and incorporated physical activities. Interestingly enough, both programs used basketball within their progr... ...r week, after school NutriActive program with kindergarten and first graders. This studyÃ¢â¬â¢s results indicated that a short, vigorous program such as NutriActiveÃ¢â¬â¢s, can produce significant and sustainable improvements in motor skills and fitness levels of young children. The nutrition groupÃ¢â¬â¢s program, especially the interactive components would likely be a great fit for this population, the content may need to be changed slightly to make it more age appropriate but the overall message and delivery would useful. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to point out that the nutrition group, the Holcomb et al. study, and Matvienko et al. study all use of a client centered approach, and a common theme is apparent with respect to enabling individuals participating in these programs to foster feelings of competence, which contribute to their overall sense of well-being and satisfaction in life.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Ethics are a part of everyday life. Dependent on the individuals focus, ethics can be a core value or a term used when needed. This comparison will assist with understanding the morality of individual decisions or choices based on the ethical system inherited. Virtue based theories centers on good character behavior, a type of human growth that forms good decision making and control of bad habits. Virtue also creates a format that eliminates moral conflict over time. An individual with strong virtue ethics will make decisions naturally.Correct moral decisions require correct motives. Utilitarianism concentrates on the right and wrong of the end result. It includes the interest of others as well as personal interest. To understand what moral is under this theory simply judge the good and bad of a situation. Unlike deontological ethics, this eliminates the thought of others and creates the image of selfishness. This theory does not set well with common religious followers. (Voytinsky, 2011). Deontological ethics focus on the reason why we do or act. This practice would allow rules to be broken as long as the moral duty is protected.Pain and pleasure will not satisfy action under the theory. Obligations are written in stone. The moral principle is maintained regardless of consequential occurrence. Deontological ethics are common among religious practices. (Cline, 2013). I joined the military at twenty on with strong Christian ties. A recruiter convinced me that my job was non-combative. My worry, of course, was not to harm or kill another human being. Saudi Arabia told a different story.I was faced with; shooting to kill to protect myself and my comrades, or honoring commandments. My religious beliefs would have put me in military prison. I would have also become a target among my peers. I was forced to accept the utilitarianism approach in order to survive and return home to my family.The scope of all things ethical may become slightly misunderstood due to the mo rality of each individual. Strong beliefs or a sound knowledge of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right to you may create the conflict of a life time. Understanding theseÃ differences describe in this writing will help to understand the complete picture. Each ethical theory has its value in life. Being aware will allow us to facilitate conflict, conversations, or debates with proper knowledge of which ethical value is used, discussed, or misunderstood.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Retirement Age: When? The situation concerning the retirement age is very different in different parts of the world. Some people at the age of 70 or 80 are still in working process, they are taking care of their families, countries and business companies. The situation with the other people is different. They are fit and have good health but, in accordance with the national law regulations they have to retire much earlier. Below IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to discuss the dilemma concerning whether people have to have the right to work as many years as they want OR they should be retired at the fixed age. First of all we will talk about those people who would like to work as long as they need. There are actually several forcible arguments which to satisfy their needs. To begin with, it is necessary to say that there are older employers who possess profound knowledge and rich experience which is precious for the business process and it will be a huge loss if such people will be forced to retire. The other good point if that the older employers are more loyal and they have more willing to put company policies into practice in contrast to the younger employers. One of the most important things about the retirement of older people is the way our society treats them. The thing is that once you made someone to retire at the age of 60 or 65, it means you do not value the contribution of these people into the life of the society. However, to allow people to work as long as they need is not always that good. Age cannot guarantee good abilities. For example, some younger employers may have much more experience and cleverness than the older people who have spent almost the whole their life working in one and the same are. The other point is that many people having an opportunity to work as long as they are willing to will continue to work because they simply didnÃ¢â¬â¢t plan anything else for their life. Thus, company wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be provided with new ideas that young employers can offer. One more point lies in the fact that older people need to be provided with the guarantee of generous pensions in order to have an opportunity to enjoy the freedom they got. Nowadays there is
Friday, December 27, 2019
If you are studying existentialism and have an exam coming up, the best way to prepare for it is to write lots of practice essays.Ã Doing this helps you to recall the texts and the ideas you have studied; it helps you to organize your knowledge of these; it often triggers original or critical insights of your own.Ã Here is a set of essay questions you can use.Ã They relate to the following classic existentialist texts: Tolstoy, My ConfessionTolstoy, The Death of Ivan IlyichDostoyevsky, Notes from UndergroundDostoyevsky, The Grand InquisitorNietzsche, The Gay ScienceBeckett, Waiting for GodotSartre, The WallSartre, NauseaSartre, Existentialism Is a HumanismSartre, Portrait of an Anti-SemiteKafka, A Message From the Emperor, A Little Fable, Couriers, Before the LawCamus, The Myth of SisyphusCamus, The Stranger Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky Both Tolstoys Confession and Dostoyevskys Notes from Underground seem to reject science and rationalistic philosophy.Ã Why?Ã Explain and evaluate the reasons for the critical attitudes toward science in these two texts.Both TolstoyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ivan Ilyich (at least once he falls sick) and DostoyevskyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ Underground Man feel estranged from the people around them.Ã Why?Ã In what ways is the kind of isolation they experience similar, and in what ways is it different?The underground man says that Ã¢â¬Ëto be too conscious is an illness.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã What does he mean?Ã What are his reasons?Ã In what ways does the underground man suffer from excessive consciousness?Ã Do you see this as the root cause of his sufferings or are there deeper problems that give rise to it?Ã Does Ivan Ilyich also suffer from excessive consciousness, or is his problem something different?Both The Death of Ivan Ilyich and Notes From Underground portray individuals who feel separated from thei r society.Ã Is the isolation they experience avoidable, or is it primarily caused by the sort of society they belong to.In the Authors Note at the beginning of Notes from Underground, the author describes the underground man as representative of a new type of person that must inevitably appear in modern society.Ã What aspects of the character are representative of this new type of modern individual?Ã Does he remain representative today in 21st century America, or has his type more or less disappeared?Contrast what DostoyevskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Grand Inquisitor says about freedom with what the Underground Man says about it.Ã Whose views do you most agree with? Nietzsche, The Gay Science Tolstoy (in Confession), DostoyevskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Underground Man, and Nietzsche in The Gay Science, are all critical of those who think the main goal in life should be the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain.Ã Why?Ã When Nietzsche read Notes from Underground he immediately hailed Dostoyevsky as a Ã¢â¬â¢kindred spiritÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã Why?In The Gay Science, Nietzsche says: Ã¢â¬Å"LifeÃ¢â¬âthat is: being cruel and inexorable against everything about us that is growing old and weakÃ¢â¬ ¦.being without reverence for those who are dying, who are wretched, who are ancient.Ã Explain, giving illustrative examples, what you think he means and why he says this.Ã Do you agree with him?At the beginning of Book IV of The Gay Science, Nietzsche says all in all and on the whole: some day I wish only to be a Yes-sayer.Ã Explain what he meansÃ¢â¬âand what he is opposing himself to--by reference to issues he discusses elsewhere in the work.Ã How successful is he in maintaining this life-affirming stance?Morality is herd instinct in the individual.Ã What does Nietzsche mean by this?Ã How does this statement fit in with the way he views conventional morality and his ownÃ alternative values?Explain in detail NietzscheÃ¢â¬â¢s view of Christianity.Ã What aspects of Western civilization, both positive and negative, does he see as largely due to its influence?In The Gay Science Nietzsche says: Ã¢â¬Å"The strongest and most evil spirits have so far done the most to advance humanity.Ã¢â¬ Ã Explain, giving examples, what you think he means and why he says this.Ã Do you agree with him?In The Gay Science Nietzsche seems to both criticize moralists who distrust the passions and instincts and also himself be a great advocate of self-control.Ã Can these two aspects of his thinking be reconciled?Ã If so, how?What is NietzscheÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude in The Gay Science towards the quest for truth and knowledge? Is it something heroic and admirable, or should it be viewed with suspicion as a hangover from traditional morality and religion? Sartre Sartre famously observed that man is condemned to be free.Ã He also wrote that man is a futile passion.Ã Explain what these statements mean and the reasoning that lies behind them.Ã Would you describe the conception of humanity that emerges as optimistic or pessimistic?SartreÃ¢â¬â¢s existentialism was labeled by one critic Ã¢â¬Å"the philosophy of the graveyard,Ã¢â¬ and existentialism strikes many as dominated by depressing ideas and outlooks.Ã Why would someone think this?Ã And why might others disagree?Ã In SartreÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking which tendencies do you see as depressing and which uplifting or inspiring?In his Portrait of the Anti-Semite, Sartre says the Anti-Semite feels the nostalgia of impermeability.Ã What does this mean?Ã How does it help us understand anti-Semitism?Ã Where else in Sartres writings is this tendency examined?The climax of Sartres novel Nausea is Roquentins revelation in the park when he contemplates.Ã What is the nature of this revela tion?Ã Should it be described as a form of enlightenment?Explain and discuss either AnnyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas about Ã¢â¬Ëperfect momentsÃ¢â¬â¢ or RoquentinÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas about Ã¢â¬Ëadventures (or both).Ã How do these notions relate to the major themes explored in Nausea?It has been said that Nausea presents the world as it appears to one who experiences at a deep level what Nietzsche described as the death of God.Ã What supports this interpretation?Ã Do you agree with it?Explain what Sartre means when he says that we make our decisions and perform our actions in anguish, abandonment, and despair.Ã Do you find his reasons for viewing human action in this way convincing?Ã [In answering this question, make sure you consider Sartrean texts beyond just his lecture Existentialism and Humanism.]At one point in Nausea, Roquentin says, Ã¢â¬Å"Beware of literature!Ã¢â¬ Ã What does he mean? Why does he say this?Ã Kafka, Camus, Beckett Kafkas stories and parables have often praised for capturing certain aspects of the human condition in the modern age.Ã With reference to the parables we discussed in class, explain which features of modernity Kafka illuminates and what insights, if any, he has to offer.At the end of The Myth of Sisyphus Camus says that Ã¢â¬Ëone must imagine Sisyphus happyÃ¢â¬â¢?Ã Why does he say this?Ã Wherein lies SisyphusÃ¢â¬â¢ happiness?Ã Does CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ conclusion follow logically from the rest of the essay?Ã How plausible do you find this conclusion?Is Meursault. the protagonist of The Stranger,Ã an example of what Camus calls in The Myth of Sisyphus an Ã¢â¬Ëabsurd heroÃ¢â¬â¢?Ã Justify your answer with close reference to both the novel and the essay.BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s play Waiting for Godot, isÃ¢â¬âobviouslyÃ¢â¬âabout waiting.Ã But Vladimir and Estragon wait in different ways and with different attitudes.Ã How do their ways of waiting express different possibl e responses to their situation and, by implication, to what Beckett sees as the human condition? Existentialism in General From Tolstoys account of his suicidal despair in his Confession to BeckettsÃ Waiting for Godot, there is much in existentialist writing that seems to offer a bleak view of the human condition.Ã On the basis of the texts you have studied, would you say that existentialism is indeed, a bleak philosophy, excessively concerned with mortality and meaninglessness?Ã Or does it have a positive aspect also?According to William Barrett, existentialism belongs to a longstanding tradition of intense, passionate reflection on life and the human condition, yet it is also in some ways an essentially modern phenomenon.Ã What is it about the modern world that has given rise to existentialism?Ã And what aspects of existentialism are particularly modern?
Thursday, December 19, 2019
As discussed in the next section, some critics of these types of responses to transnational terrorism argue that a law enforcement operations model should be applied rather than the law of armed conflict because of the nature of the operations that are involved. For instance, Kels notes that human rights advocates Ã¢â¬Å"insist upon a legal geography of war, whereby states must apply a law enforcement (rather than armed conflict) model to any hostilities conducted outside of universally recognized hot battlefields like AfghanistanÃ¢â¬ (B3). This approach, however, ignores the realities of military operations on the ground and consequences of using a law enforcement operations model rather than the law of armed conflict to control these efforts (Kels B3). As Kels points out, Ã¢â¬Å"Holding a drone operator, fighter pilot or sailor directing ordnance at an overseas terrorist hideout to the same detain-first, shoot-last standards as a Metro police officer would negate the very purpos e of the weapons system, which is precisely the goal of some activistsÃ¢â¬ (B3). Indeed, rather than improving AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunities to apply FSW to eliminate threats emanating from other countries that are unable or unwilling to stop them, these arguments only add further fuel to the anti-drone rhetoric in ways that may even encourage additional terrorist incursions from abroad. Law Enforcement Operations (LEO) Law is both a context for the application of power and at the same time, an instrument of power. 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